自新冠疫情爆发以来,虽然美洲欧洲等国家对于疫情防范实施较晚,但相比之下,目前英国防控及疫情控制情况位于全球前列,在发达国家中起到防疫领导带头作用。

 

英国疫情时间轴:

 

  目前疫情接种情况  

 

截止到2月16日,英国接种第一剂疫苗总数为15,940,972人,在过去24小时里增加364,865人,且已有558,577人完成第二剂疫苗。已完成2月中旬实行1500万人接种目标

根据疫苗接种的优先级,65岁组已经开打,从目前情况来看,疫苗的有效率十分显著,已接种的 80岁以 上老年人抗体水平增加,死亡率下降62%之多。

 

得益于疫苗的快速推行,英国疫情R值(病毒传播能力)也于新年假期期间将至1以下,目前处于0.7-0.9,增长率为-5%至-2%,这意味着平均每 10 名感染者会感染 7 到 9 人,而高于1的话,感染人数会成倍增长。

 

The R number is a way of rating coronavirus or any disease's ability to spread.An R value between 0.7 and 0.9 means that, on average, every 10 people infected will infect between 7 and 9 other people.

根据最新统计,截止至2月11日,伦敦地区7天感染率下降近半,约42.1%,其中Southwark的确诊病例数下降最大,降幅值达到52.6%,目前达到每10万人感染126.8例。

The seven-day coronavirus rate fell by 42.1 per cent in the capital in the week to February 11, compared to the previous week, to 126.8 infections per 100,000, with only two regions lower.

 

The highest rate was in the West Midlands on 195.5 after a fall of 28.2 per cent, followed by the East Midlands down 22.9 per cent to a rate of 192.5.

 

一串串数字背后表明英国政府对于疫情防控的力度和决心,截止到2月15日,全球每100人接种数据显示,英国位于世界第四,欧洲第一。

虽然根据接种优先组别,目前50-60岁人群还未接种,但目前已实现一大步,已有23.3%人群完成第一剂,超额完成原定目标;政府并计划于4月底前完成全部优先群体接种,近3200万人。按照目前的接种速度来说,此目标将有很大可能完成甚至提前完成。

The government plans to offer 13.9 million people (21% of the population) a first dose of the vaccine by the middle of February. This group includes the top four priority groups: everyone in care homes, all over-70s, frontline health and social care workers and clinically extremely vulnerable individuals.

 

  英国隔离接种政策  

 

为防止海外病例输入,影响英国本土疫情防控,同时避免扩散,英国政府禁止10天内到访过以下33个国家的人员入境:

 

  • 欧洲:葡萄牙(包括马德拉和亚速尔群岛)

  • 中东:阿拉伯联合酋长国(阿联酋)

  • 非洲:安哥拉、博茨瓦纳、布隆迪、佛得角、刚果民主共和国、埃斯瓦蒂尼、莱索托、马拉维、毛里求斯、莫桑比克、纳米比亚、卢旺达、塞舌尔、南非、坦桑尼亚、赞比亚、津巴布韦

  • 南美洲:阿根廷、玻利维亚、巴西、智利、哥伦比亚、厄瓜多尔、法属圭亚那、圭亚那、巴拿马、巴拉圭、秘鲁、苏里南、乌拉圭、委内瑞拉

 

若是英国公民或爱尔兰公民,则需要进行 酒店隔离10晚,自行支付1750英镑,费用包含交通、核检、吃住等,还分别需在第二天和第八天接受核酸检测

 

目前政府已与16家酒店达成协议,提供4963间客房用于隔离检疫,另有5.8万间处于待命状态。

 

  英国将开展世界首次新冠人体实验  

 

BBC最新报道称,英国将开展世界首次新冠人体实验

有人会疑问,为什么已经在接种新冠疫苗,为什么还要挑战做此人体实验呢?

 

目前人类在新冠病毒研究上还有很多不足,疫苗也是在短时间内全球对疫情控制的产物。其实我们并不了解多少剂量的病毒会引发感染?免疫系统何时及如何进行初始防御?不同的人都有哪些不同的症状?病毒如何成功传播之人体等等?

介于新冠病毒可能会与人类长期共存,而且病毒也在不断“升级”,出现各种变种毒株。疫苗工作组临时主席克莱夫·迪克斯表示:这项“Human Challenge Trial”将让医生们更好地了解Covid-19,将有助于继续开发新的更有效的疫苗和治疗方法。

此项研究已经获批,将由英国政府疫苗工作组、帝国理工学院、皇家自由伦敦NHS信托基金会及 hVIVO公司共同合作。

 

在未来几周内,政府会招募90名18-30岁健康、年轻、未感染过新冠病毒的志愿者(因病毒爆发以来,健康年轻的人群感染率相比较低),通过将病毒喷入鼻中的形式,将新冠病毒毒株接种至体内。同时,志愿者们也将获得约4500英镑的报酬,在医院隔离14天进行观察病毒感染情况。

 

Healthy, young volunteers will be infected with coronavirus to test vaccines and treatments in the world's first Covid-19 "human challenge" study, which will take place in the UK.

 

The study, which has received ethics approval, will start in the next few weeks and recruit 90 people aged 18-30.

 

Clive Dix, interim chair of the Vaccines Taskforce, said: "We have secured a number of safe and effective vaccines for the UK, but it is essential that we continue to develop new vaccines and treatments for Covid-19.

 

"We expect these studies to offer unique insights into how the virus works and help us understand which promising vaccines offer the best chance of preventing the infection."

 

Chief investigator Dr Chris Chiu, from Imperial College London, said: "We are asking for volunteers aged between 18 and 30 to join this research.Volunteers will be screened to check they are healthy and have not been infected by the virus before.

 

​  英国对儿童开展疫苗测试  

 

 根据上周的报道,英国将于2月17日起对约240名6-17岁儿童志愿者进行牛津疫苗有效性测试实验

儿科感染和免疫学教授、牛津疫苗试验首席研究员安德鲁·波拉德指出,与老年人相比,儿童的感染率、发病率、死亡率都低得多,虽然目前英国仅对18岁及以上的成人进行疫苗接种,但是在儿童和青少年体内建立免疫反应也是非常重要的。

 

A new trial is to test how well the Oxford-AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine works in children. As many as 240 children will receive the vaccine - and the others a control meningitis jab - when the trial gets under way.

 

Andrew Pollard, professor of paediatric infection and immunity, and chief investigator on the Oxford vaccine trial, noted that most children were relatively unaffected by Covid and were unlikely to become unwell with the virus. 

 

But he said it was important to establish the safety and immune response to the vaccine in children and young people as some children might benefit from vaccination.

 

在英国医疗实力基础上,为扩大疫苗收益群组、应对病毒变种,不得不说英国在全球防疫上都起到带头及至关重要的作用。相信第二代第三代及不同年龄群组下的疫苗,将于不久的未来在全球实行,可谓是大大增强了战胜新冠病毒的信心!

 

  解封在即,英镑上涨,经济将复苏  

 

由于目前英国疫情得到有效控制,并为逐步刺激经济发展,鲍里斯称将于2月22日(周一)宣布全国解封路径方案,且解封会阶段性进行。

 

但是对于解封,不会像去年年中那样,全部完全重新开放结果导致疫情大量爆发,这一次将focus on 'data, not dates' ,由数据主导,采取更多安全措施,控制解封步伐,此项计划需极其谨慎,但不可逆

虽然3月8日学校可能将重新开学,随后便是商店、酒吧和餐馆,但最终实施还是要看下周一的政府发布内容。

 

苏格兰第一部长尼古拉·斯图加特宣布,从下周一开始分阶段对小学复学,而威尔士三至七岁的学生将在半学期后返回学校,北爱尔兰的大多数学校还是处于关闭状态。

 

NHS建议解除封锁前,每日新增病例应控制在1000人内,但目前平均超过1万人,一旦9个优先群体完成接种,则可以考虑开始放宽限制。

Boris Johnson says it is "absolutely right" to take a "data not dates" approach to leaving lockdown, stressing England will ease measures "cautiously". He said he would set out "what we can" in a road map for easing restrictions on Monday.

 

It follows a call from scientists for a data-led approach to lifting measures.

 

NHS Providers, which represents health managers, has suggested the number of new daily cases should be below 1,000 before restrictions are lifted. The average is currently above 10,000.

 

Chris Hopson, chief executive of NHS Providers, said the end of April, once the top nine priority groups have been vaccinated, was the "logical point at which we can start considering easing restrictions".

即将解封的消息发布前后,周一,欧元对美元汇率突破1.39美元,对人民币汇率也破9,创下9个月新高!

投资公司IW Capital的首席执行官戴维斯(Luke Davis)表示,目前的英国股市正处在被低估的状态,接下来市场将会迎来一段繁荣期。由于疫情封锁,戴维斯称,一旦解除封锁,可能出现报复性消费,极大推动经济复苏!

同样,在此之前,英国央行首席经济学家安迪•霍尔丹表示,到今年6月左右将积累2500亿英镑储蓄,保守预测,解封后英国家庭将消费掉储蓄金额中至少5%,约125亿英镑,因此,英国经济将出现转折点 ,尤其是在商场、餐馆、酒吧方面等长期受封锁压抑的娱乐需求。

 

The BoE’s Andy Haldane said the economy was about to turn “a decisive corner with enormous amounts of pent-up financial energy waiting to be released, like a coiled spring”.

 

By June, those Britons who have seen their incomes remain much the same but their spending plummet during three lockdowns will have amassed £250bn in savings, equivalent to 20% of the amount households spend each year.

 

Writing in the Daily Mail on Friday, Haldane said the Bank had conservatively estimated around 5%. “I think there is the potential for much more, perhaps even most, of this savings pool to leak into the economy, fuelling a faster rec overy,” he said.

 

对于解封和复工方面,工党领袖基尔·斯塔默(Keir Starmer )将于周四(今天)讨论政府应在疫情中发挥更大作用,他表示商业发展不可能会与之前一样,希望政府能于下月增加商业支持预算。

政府表示,目前已花费2800亿英镑用于度过此次危机,包括减税、补助及工资支持。因此,财政大臣苏纳克(Sunak)将在3月3日的演讲中,制定下一阶段应对病毒和保护就业的计划。

 

The Covid-19 crisis has shown the government needs to play a bigger role in the economy permanently, Labour's leader will argue on Thursday.

 

The government says it has spent £280bn to help the economy through the pandemic, including tax breaks, grants and wage support for workers. Chancellor Rishi Sunak is due to set out the "next phase of the plan to tackle the virus and protect jobs" in his Budget speech on 3 March.

 

由此,回顾英国在疫情爆发后所采取的一系列行动及措施,直至目前,已得到良好控制,政府也根据数据对解封进行谨慎严谨的路径计划;同时,在疫苗上也在寻求更广泛、更有效的治疗方式,不断为全球防疫做出贡献。

解封在即,英国经济将得到极大复苏,相信留学生们赴英计划也能尽早提上日程。虽然英国去年疫情情况不佳,但由现在的趋势来看,未来可能会成为最安全的国家之一,所以建议大家还是稳住,提前做好入境准备(点击查看国际学生返英注意事项),希望大家都能健康、顺利地完成学业!